Slide of the Week

Denise Ney, PhD Denise Ney, PhD
Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU). A diet containing amino acids compared to one with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice.
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Slide of the Week: Karl Rosengren, PhD Karl Rosengren, PhD
Children’s drawings have long been used to assess aspects of general cognitive functioning, intelligence, perceptual motor development, and even socio-emotional development. 
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Paul Rathouz Slide of the Week
Paul Rathouz, PhD
Children with anarthria had significant language delays, limited developmental change over time, and comprised their own latent class. Children with speech motor impairment had a slight but constant receptive language delay over time.
Seth Pollak, PhD Seth Pollak, PhD
Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation.
Slide of the Week: Albee Messing VMD, PhD Albee Messing VMD, PhD
Alexander disease (AxD) is a primary genetic disorder of astrocytes caused by dominant mutations in the gene encoding the intermediate filament (IF) protein GFAP.
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Slide of the Week: Lawrence D. Shriberg, PhD Lawrence D Shriberg, PhD
Verbal trait disorders encompass a wide range of conditions and are marked by deficits in five domains that impair a person’s ability to communicate: speech, language, reading, spelling, and writing.
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Maynard Slide of the Week 2017  Douglas W. Maynard, PhD
The sociological literature on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has concentrated on the distribution of the diagnosis is within populations, and the institutional determinants of this process.
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Mailick Slide of the Week 2017  Marsha R. Mailick, PhD
This study investigated the association of genotype (CGG repeats in FMR1) and the health and well-being of 5628 aging adults (mean age = 71) in a population-based study.
Ruth Litovsky Slide of the Week 2017 Ruth Litovsky, PhD
Children who are born with bilateral sensorineural deafness are candidates for surgical placement of cochlear implants, which convey auditory information through electrical stimulation of the 8th nerve.
Kaushanskaya Slide of the Week 2017  Margarita Kaushanskaya, PhD
The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10 years, matched on age and nonverbal IQ.
Katherine Hustad, PhD Katherine Hustad, PhD
To determine whether communication at 2 years predicted communication at 4 years in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and whether the age a child first produces words imitatively influences change in speech production.
Hubbard Slide of the Week Edward Hubbard, PhD
A fundamental question in numerical cognition is how we retrieve the meaning of number symbols-the “symbol grounding problem”.
Sigan Hartley Slide of the Week 2017 Sigan Hartley, PhD
The vulnerability-stress-adaptation model guided this examination of the impact of daily fluctuations in the symptoms and co-occurring behavior problems of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on parents' couple problem-solving interactions in natural settings and as these interactions spontaneously occur.
Goldsmith Slide of the Week H. Hill Goldsmith, PhD
Impulsivity is commonly conflated with novelty seeking, but these traits are conceptually independent and hold different predictive implications.
Gamm Slide of the Week David Gamm, MD, PhD
Few gene targets of Visual System Homeobox 2 (VSX2) have been identified despite its broad and critical role in the maintenance of neural retina (NR) fate during early retinogenesis.
Ferrazzano Slide of the Week Peter Ferrazzano, MD
The aim of the current study was to assess for differences in the effect of microglial suppression on HI-induced brain injury in infant and juvenile mice.
Ellis Weismer Slide of the Week 2016 Susan Ellis Weismer, PhD
This study investigated whether the ability to learn word-object associations following minimal exposure (i.e., fast mapping) was associated with concurrent and later language abilities in children with ASD.
Davidson Slide of the Week 2016  Richie Davidson, PhD
Much research has focused on the deleterious neurobiological effects of childhood adversity that may underlie internalizing disorders. Although most youth show emotional adaptation following adversity, the corresponding neural mechanisms remain poorly understood.
Dent Slide of the Week 2016 Erik Dent, PhD
Synaptic plasticity often involves changes in the structure and composition of dendritic spines. Vesicular cargos and organelles enter spines either by exocytosing in the dendrite shaft and diffusing into spines or through a kinesin to myosin hand-off at the base of spines.
Coe 2016 Slide of the Week Chris Coe, PhD
Iron deficiency (ID) anemia leads to long-term neurodevelopmental deficits by altering iron-dependent brain metabolism.
Chang Slide of the Week Qiang Chang, PhD
Mutations in the human MECP2 gene cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurodevelop- mental disorder that predominantly affects girls.
Pelin Cengiz, MD Pelin Cengiz, MD
Male neonate brains are more susceptible to the effects of perinatal asphyxia resulting in hypoxia and ischemia (HI)-related brain injury. The relative resistance of female neonatal brains to adverse consequences of HI suggests that there are sex-specific mechanisms that afford females greater neuroprotection and/or facilitate recovery post-HI.
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Bhattacharyya 2016 Slide of the Week Anita Bhattacharyya, PhD
Human patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide unique opportunities for disease modeling and drug development. However, adapting hiPSCs or their differentiated progenies to high throughput assays for phenotyping or drug screening has been challenging.
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Bendlin 2016 Slide of the Week Barbara Bendlin, PhD
Human aging is accompanied by progressive changes in executive function and memory, but the biological mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not fully understood. Using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, we sought to examine the relationship between age, cellular microstructure, and neuropsychological scores in 116 late middle-aged, cognitively asymptomatic participants.
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Asmus Slide of the Week
Jennifer Asmus, PhD
The authors conducted 324 full-class-length observations of 108 high school students with severe disabilities in general education classes, focusing analyses on how often students were present during class and in proximity to peers without disabilities.
Ausderau Slide of the Week Karla Ausderau, PhD
Sensory features are prevalent and heterogeneous across children with ASD and these features have been associated with child outcomes.
Alexander Slide of the Week 2016 Andy Alexander, PhD
Neuroimaging findings in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest this condition is associated with altered white matter microstructure, which may lead to atypical macroscale brain connectivity.
Zhao Slide of the Week Xinyu Zhao, PhD
Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP).
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Ney Slide of the Week Denise Ney, PhD
Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a bioactive peptide released from casein in milk during cheesemaking that contains no aromatic amino acids. GMP is isolated for use in medical foods for the management of phenylketonuria (PKU)...
Vorperian Slide of the Week Houri Vorperian, PhD
The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua.
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Travers Slide of the Week Brittany Travers, PhD
Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit motor difficulties, but it is unknown whether manual motor skills improve, plateau, or decline in ASD in the transition from childhood into adulthood.
Tekin Slide of the Week Ender Tekin, PhD
People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays.
Svaren Slide of the Week John Svaren, PhD
Myelin is formed by specialized myelinating glia: oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems, respectively.
Suzuki Masatoshi Suzuki, DVM, PhD
Using stem cells to replace degenerating muscle cells and restore lost skeletal muscle function is an attractive therapeutic strategy for treating neuromuscular diseases.
Sterling Slide of the Week Audra Sterling, PhD
Children with typical development and FXS performed better on finiteness marking than children with SLI.
Leann Smith Slide of the Week

Leann Smith, PhD
The present research investigated young children’s automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race.
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Simmering SotW

Vanessa Simmering, PhD
The present research investigated young children’s automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race.
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Shutts Slide of the Week

Kristin Shutts, PhD
The present research investigated young children’s automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race.
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Saffran Slide of the Week

Jenny Saffran, PhD
The major foci in the brain that appear to show disparities in poor children are the hippocampus and frontal lobe.
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Pollak Slide of the Week

Seth Pollak, PhD
The major foci in the brain that appear to show disparities in poor children are the hippocampus and frontal lobe.
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Julie Poehlmann-Tynan Slide of the Week

Julie Poehlmann-Tynan, PhD
This pilot randomized controlled trial with economically disadvantaged preschoolers investigated the feasibility and preliminary effects of a mindfulness intervention. We examined its effect on children’s empathy and self-regulation and explored how the curriculum might meet the needs of children attending federally subsidized preschools.
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Albee Messing,VMD, PhD SotW Albee Messing, VMD, PhD
Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).
Douglas Maynard, PhD Douglas Maynard, PhD
This paper is a single case study involving a visit to a diagnostic clinic for autism spectrum disorder.
Mailick Slide of the Week Marsha R. Mailick, PhD
We have estimated the prevalence of FMR1 premutation and gray zone CGG repeat expansions in a population-based sample of 19,996 male and female adults in Wisconsin and compared the observed sex ratios of the prevalence of FMR1 CGG premutation and gray zone expansions to theoretical sex ratios.
Litovsky Slide of the Week
Ruth Litovsky, PhD
Listening effort is a component of auditory perception involving cognitive processing or cognitive load.
Li Slide of the Week James Li, PhD
Item response theory (IRT) was separately applied to parent- and teacher-rated symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from a pooled sample of 526 six- to twelve-year-old children with and without ADHD.
Lainhart SoW Janet E. Lainhart, MD
The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported.
 	Margarita Kaushanskaya, PhD SoW Margarita Kaushanskaya, PhD
We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills.
Jeffrey Johnson, PhD SOW Jeffrey Johnson, PhD
Binding of the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in neural cells results in the induction of a battery of genes that can coordinate a protective response against a variety of oxidative stressors.
Hubbard SoW Ed Hubbard, PhD
What basic capacities lay the foundation for advanced numerical cognition? Are there basic nonsymbolic abilities that support understanding more advanced numerical concepts like fractions?
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Hei Slide of the Week Derek Hei, PhD
Retinal degenerative diseases (RDDs), such as retinitis pigmentosa and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), are caused by disruption of photoreceptor function resulting in vision loss.
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Hartley Slide of the Week Sigan Hartley, PhD
Little research has examined the support needs of mothers versus fathers of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Gubbels Slide of the Week Samuel P Gubbels, MD
Hair cells in the adult mammalian cochlea cannot spontaneously regenerate after damage, resulting in the permanency of hearing loss. Stem cells have been found to be present in the cochlea of young rodents; however, there has been little evidence for their existence into adulthood.
Greenberg Slide of the Week Jan S. Greenberg, PhD
The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with parents of a child with developmental disabilities (n=190) compared to parents of children without any disabilities (n=7,251) revealed that the two groups of parents do not show significantly different survival (i.e., remaining married) functions across the life course (p=0.2).
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Gomez Slide of the Week Tim Gomez, PhD
Invadopodia and podosomes, collectively referred to as invadosomes, are F-actin rich basal protrusions of cells that provide sites of attachment to and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM).
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Goldsmith Slide of the Week H. Hill Goldsmith, PhD
Sensory over-responsivity, a subtype of sensory modulation disorder, is characterized by extreme negative reactions to normative sensory experiences.
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Gamm Slide of the Week David Gamm, MD, PhD
Degradation of photoreceptor outer segments (POS) by retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is essential for vision, and studies have implicated altered POS processing in the pathogenesis of some retinal degenerative diseases.
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Peter Ferrazzano, MD Slide of the Week Peter Ferrazzano, MD
Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries.
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 Susan Ellis Weismer, PhD Slide of the Week Susan Ellis Weismer, PhD
Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries.
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Edwards Slide of the Week Jan Edwards, PhD
Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries.
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Durkin Slide of the Week Maureen S. Durkin, PhD
Recent studies have reported an increased risk of autism among second-born children conceived <12 months versus >36 months after the birth of a sibling. Confirmation of this finding would point to inter-pregnancy interval (IPI) as a potentially modifiable risk factor for autism.
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Davidson Slide of the Week Richard Davidson, PhD
Early life stress (ELS) can compromise development, with higher amounts of adversity linked to behavioral problems. To understand this linkage, a growing body of research has examined two brain regions involved with socioemotional functioning-amygdala and hippocampus.
Converse SotW Alex Converse, PhD
It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement.
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Christian Slide of the Week Bradley T. Christian, PhD
Down syndrome (DS) results from a triplication of chromosome 21. On chromosome 21 is the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) – a known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
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Chang Slide of Week Qiang Chang, PhD
Neuronal activity regulates the phosphorylation states at multiple sites on MeCP2 in postmitotic neurons. The precise control of the phosphorylation status of MeCP2 in neurons is critical for the normal development and function of the mammalian brain.
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Cengiz Slide of the Week Pelin Cengiz, MD
Hypoxia ischemia (HI)-related brain injury is the major cause of long-term morbidity in neonates. One characteristic hallmark of neonatal HI is the development of reactive astrogliosis in the hippocampus.
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Anita Bhattacharyya, PhD Slide of the Week Anita Bhattacharyya, PhD
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and is closely linked with autism. The genetic basis of FXS is an expansion of CGG repeats in the 5'-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome leading to the loss of expression of FMRP. 
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Bendlin Slide of the Week Barbara B. Bendlin, PhD
Insulin resistance (IR) increases Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. IR is related to greater amyloid burden post-mortem and increased deposition within areas affected by early AD. No studies have examined if IR is associated with an in vivo index of amyloid in the human brain in late middle-aged participants at risk for AD.
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Baker Slide of the Week Mei Baker, MD
Many regions have implemented newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) using a limited panel of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutations after immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) analysis. We sought to assess the feasibility of further improving the screening using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology.
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Ausderau Slide of Week Karla Ausderau, PhD
Sensory features are highly prevalent and heterogeneous among children with ASD. There is a need to identify homogenous groups of children with ASD based on sensory features (i.e. sensory subtypes) to inform research and treatment. Methods: Sensory subtypes and their stability over one year were identified through latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) among a national sample of children with ASD.
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Anjon Audhya, PhD Anjon Audhya, PhD
Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of gait disorders. Their pathological hallmark is a length-dependent distal axonopathy of nerve fibers in the corticospinal tract. Involvement of other neurons can cause additional neurological symptoms, which define a diverse set of complex hereditary spastic paraplegias.
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Asmus Slide of Week Jennifer Asmus, PhD
Adolescents with severe disabilities often have few opportunities to learn alongside and connect socially with peers without disabilities at their high school. In this pilot study, nine high school students with severe disabilities were randomly assigned to three conditions: peer support arrangements, peer network intervention, or a comparison condition involving “business-as-usual” paraprofessional support.
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Alexander Andy Alexander, PhD
Representative example of multiple image contrasts from a new brain imaging technique MPnRAGE developed in the Alexander Lab in the Waisman Brain Imaging Core.  The MPnRAGE method can generate multiple inversion recovery contrasts, quantitative T1 relaxometry, and tissue specific (gray matter or white matter) maps.  Whole brain three-dimensional images are acquired in roughly 8 minutes with 1 mm isotropic resolution.
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