In tissue engineering applications, sacrificial molding of hydrogel monoliths is a versatile technique for creating 3D molds to control tissue morphology. Previous sacrificial templates fabricated by serial processes such as solvent casting and thermal extrusion/fiber drawing can be used to effectively mold internal geometries within rapidly polymerizing, bulk curing hydrogels.
Transplantation of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neurons into chick embryos is an established preliminary assay to evaluate engraftment potential. Yet, with recent advances in deriving diverse human neuronal subtypes, optimizing and standardizing such transplantation methodology for specific subtypes at their correlated anatomical sites is still required.
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural organoids provide unprecedented potential to recapitulate human brain and spinal cord tissues in vitro. However, organoid morphogenesis relies upon cell-intrinsic self-assembly of biomimetic tissue structures in the absence of normal developmental constraints and morphogen signaling centers.